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Go Back   Bimmerfest - BMW Forums > BMW Model Discussions > 5 Series > E39 (1997 - 2003)

E39 (1997 - 2003)
The BMW 5-Series (E39 chassis) was introduced in the United States as a 1997 model year car and lasted until the 2004 when the E60 chassis was released. The United States saw several variations including the 525i, 528i, 530i and 540i. -- View the E39 Wiki

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  #1  
Old 12-26-2009, 03:37 PM
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M54 Engine Details

I'm learning about the M54 engine in the 2002 530i I'm planning to purchase next week and found this information. It was the most complete summary I have found to date so figured it may be useful for others interested in learning more about the M54 engine.

"Here are the details on what make the BMW M54 engine so special:

In an era of V-6 designs, why a straight-six?
•The laws of physics; a straight-six power unit offers the optimum physical configuration for a six-cylinder engine.
•The near perfect inner balance of the straight-six means an absence of free mass forces.
•The straight-six does not require balance shafts and elaborate engine mounts to overcome the inherent vibrations of other designs.
•With valve drive systems becoming more complex, there are engineering advantages in having only one cylinder head and only one valve train.

The Design of the Straight-Six
More power, more fuel economy. Here's how:

The M54 has an aluminum crankcase with cast cylinder liners. The engine size has been increased from the 2.8 liters of the M52 model to 3.0 liters by increasing the cylinder stroke from 84.0 to 89.6 mm. With the increase in engine size, engine power has been increased from 142 kW/193 hp to 170 kW/231 hp. The increase in the opening period of the intake valves resulted in an increase of 3.5 kW/4.8 hp in engine output. The intake and exhaust manifolds have been streamlined. This improvement contributed 16 kW/22 hp to the increase in engine output. Other refinements result from reducing piston friction and cutting back the engine's idle speed.

Electronic Throttle Butterfly
The throttle butterfly has now been replaced by a fully electronic version.

The system recognizes the gear in which the car is driving and is thus able to activate an individually programmed throttle butterfly control line for each gear. Cruise control has been integrated within the electronic throttle butterfly. Since there are no conventional mechanical linkage bars, there is a reduction of gas pedal forces. The phrase "step on the gas" takes on a whole new meaning! The controls stored within the engine management system have increased to over 600 different operating modes.

Engine Reliability
The M54 is the most reliable BMW engine ever built. Here's why:

•The camshaft chain drive and the V-belt drive are maintenance-free and designed for the life of the engine.
•Valve clearances are kept consistent throughout the entire running life of the engine by a self-adjusting hydraulic valve clearance mechanism. There is no need to adjust valve clearances, ever.
•There is no need to reset the clutch since it is self-adjusting.
•The air filters and spark plugs only have to be replaced after 100,000 km or 62,000 miles.
•The oil in the transmission and final drive is a lifetime filling not requiring any replacement.
•There is no need for any particular running-in service.
•The BMW Service Interval Indicator informs the driver of the remaining distance until the next oil change. You no longer have to change the oil after a fixed, rigid mileage.
•The engine is able to adjust automatically to all fuel grades between 87 and 98 octane.
•Anti-knock control automatically adjusts the engine's running conditions to the respective fuel grade and quality.
•Please note that the engine's maximum output is only achieved when running on 98 octane premium fuel.

Specifications
•Configuration - Straight-six
•Market launch Year 2000
•Max output kW/bhp 170 / 231 at 5900 rpm
•Max torque Nm(lb-ft) 300 (221) from 3500-4750 rpm
•Combustion process - Intake manifold injection / throttle control / lambda = 1.0
•Capacity, effective cc 2979.3
•Compression ratio - 10.2
•Bore / stroke mm 84 / 89.6
•Crankcase material - Aluminum (AISi9Cu3) with cylinder liners
•Height of cylinder block mm 211.0
•Distance between cylinders mm 91
•Topland mm 7
•Main bearing diameter mm 60.0
•Conrod bearing diameter mm 45.0
•Conrod length mm 135, crack technology
•Cylinder head material - Aluminum ((AISi6CU4)
•Camshafts - 2 chain-driven camshafts running in 7 bearings and with ultra-fine balance
•Camshaft adjustment - Hydraulically infinitely variable phase adjustment of the intake and outlet camshafts
•Valve drive Cup tappets with hydraulic valve play compensation
•Valve diameter intake/outlet mm 33.0 / 30.5
•Valve shaft diameter intake/outlet 6.0 / 6.0
•Valve angle intake/outlet 20 o 15' / 19 o 15'
•Max valve lift, intake mm 9.7
•Max valve lift, outlet mm 9.0
•Opening period, intake o CS 240
•Opening period, outlet o CS 244
•Intake angle range o CS 86 - 126, infinitely variable
•Outlet angle range o CS 80 - 105, infinitely variable
•Intake manifold - Two-chamber resonance intake system with additional turbulence unit
•Engine weight according to BMW standard kg / lb 170 / 375
•Engine management / fuel supply - Siemens MS43 / sequential multipoint injection / fully electronic throttle butterfly adjustment / additional turbulence system adjuster
•Fuel grade RON 87 - 98 (rated output with 98 ROM fuel)
•Certified emission standard - EU 4 / ULEV
•Exhaust system - Shell manifold with three-way main catalysts close to the engine; additional secondary air injection in some markets
VANOS is a combined hydraulic and mechanical camshaft control device managed by the car's DME engine management system.

VANOS
The VANOS system is based on an adjustment mechanism that can modify the position of the intake camshaft versus the crankshaft. Double-VANOS adds an adjustment of the intake and outlet camshafts.

VANOS operates on the intake camshaft in accordance with engine speed and accelerator pedal position. At the lower end of the engine-speed scale, the intake valves are opened later, which improves idling quality and smoothness. At moderate engine speeds, the intake valves open much earlier, which boosts torque and permits exhaust gas re-circulation inside the combustion chambers, reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Finally, at high engine speeds, intake valve opening is once again delayed, so that full power can be developed.

VANOS significantly enhances emission management, increases output and torque, and offers better idling quality and fuel economy. The latest version of VANOS is double-VANOS, used in the new M3.

VANOS was first introduced in 1992 on the BMW M50 engine used in the 5 Series.

Here's how it works:

In overhead cam engines, the cams are connected to the crankshaft by either a belt or chain and gears. In BMW VANOS motors there is a chain and some sprockets.

The crankshaft drives a sprocket on the exhaust cam, and the exhaust cam sprocket is bolted to the exhaust cam. A second set of teeth moves a second chain that goes across to the intake cam. The big sprocket on the intake cam is not bolted to the cam, for it has a big hole in the middle. Inside the hole is a helical set of teeth. On the end of the cam is a gear that is also helical on the outside, but it's too small to connect to the teeth on the inside of the big sprocket. There is a little cup of metal with helical teeth to match the cam on the inside and to match the sprocket on the outside. The V (Variable) in VANOS is due to the helical nature of the teeth. The cup gear is moved by a hydraulic mechanism that works on oil pressure controlled by the DME.
At idle, the cam timing is retarded. Just off idle, the DME energizes a solenoid which allows oil pressure to move that cup gear to advance the cam 12.5 degrees at midrange, and then at about 5000 rpm, it allows it to come back to the original position. The greater advance causes better cylinder fill at mid rpms for better torque. The noise some people hear is the result of tolerances that make the sprocket wiggle a bit as the cup gear is moved in or out.

Double VANOS

Double-VANOS (double-variable camshaft control) significantly improves torque since valve timing on both the intake and outlet camshafts are adjusted to the power required from the engine as a function of gas pedal position and engine speed.

On most BMW engines that use a single VANOS, the timing of the intake cam is only changed at two distinct rpm points, while on the double-VANOS system, the timing of the intake and exhaust cams are continuously variable throughout the majority of the rpm range.

With double-VANOS, the opening period of the intake valves are extended by 12 degrees with an increase in valve lift by 0.9 mm.

Double-VANOS requires very high oil pressure in order to adjust the camshafts very quickly and accurately, ensuring better torque at low engine speeds and better power at high speeds. With the amount of un-burnt residual gases being reduced, engine idle is improved. Special engine management control maps for the warm-up phase help the catalytic converter reach operating temperature sooner.

Double-VANOS improves low rpm power, flattens the torque curve, and widens the powerband for a given set of camshafts. The double-VANOS engine has a 450 rpm lower torque peak and a 200 rpm higher horsepower peak than single-VANOS, and the torque curve is improved between 1500 - 3800 rpm. At the same time, the torque does not fall off as fast past the horsepower peak.

The advantage of double-VANOS is that the system controls the flow of hot exhaust gases into the intake manifold individually for all operating conditions. This is referred to as "internal" exhaust gas re-circulation, allowing very fine dosage of the amount of exhaust gas recycled.

While the engine is warming up, VANOS improves the fuel/air mixture and helps to quickly warm up the catalytic converter to its normal operating temperature. When the engine is idling, the system keeps idle speeds smooth and consistent thanks to the reduction of exhaust gas re-circulation to a minimum. Under part load, exhaust gas re-circulation is increased to a much higher level, allowing the engine to run on a wider opening angle of the throttle butterfly in the interest of greater fuel economy. Under full load, the system switches back to a low re-circulation volume providing the cylinders with as much oxygen as possible."

If you are still with me, below is the picture that was in the article on the double VANOS. Happy trails!
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  #2  
Old 12-26-2009, 03:40 PM
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Ps. we all know that we dont buy into any "lifelong" fluids, I found it interesting the claim that the max hp is only on 98 octane fuel! Been to the airport lately to fill up?!
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  #3  
Old 12-26-2009, 06:02 PM
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Nice article! Too bad they don't mention the VANOS seals issue. All those improvements are predicated on seals that don't leak! All in all, very informative. Thanx!
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  #4  
Old 12-26-2009, 06:17 PM
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MMME30W MMME30W is offline
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Very interesting; same engine as in my 330i I believe.

Pity they didn't talk about the cooling system features.
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  #5  
Old 12-26-2009, 11:12 PM
BlueSkies10 BlueSkies10 is offline
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What I find very interesting about the engine in my 2000 528i is that it's much smaller of an engine than a large V8 engine found in American made cars, yet holds roughly two quarts more oil than the V8.
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  #6  
Old 12-27-2009, 12:48 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hooray! View Post
Ps. we all know that we dont buy into any "lifelong" fluids, I found it interesting the claim that the max hp is only on 98 octane fuel! Been to the airport lately to fill up?!
98 is pretty much available at every servo??
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  #7  
Old 12-27-2009, 02:39 AM
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kingdunke kingdunke is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BlueSkies10 View Post
What I find very interesting about the engine in my 2000 528i is that it's much smaller of an engine than a large V8 engine found in American made cars, yet holds roughly two quarts more oil than the V8.
i think the v8 model holds 1 more quart the the straight-6. but anyway, the amount of oil difference doesn't mean much to the output of the engines.

OP's article is way more for marketing than real meanings. bottomline is probably "M54 is exceptional, but the car in a whole needs lots of maintenance"
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  #8  
Old 12-27-2009, 05:29 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by crimespree View Post
98 is pretty much available at every servo??
I'm pretty sure that article was written for the North American market where the fuel grade uses AKI (anti-knock index) scale rather than RON (research octane number).

The AKI fuel octane specification (low/mid/high) usually found at gas stations here in the States are 87 AKI/89 AKI/91-93 AKI...these numbers are usually lower than countries that use RON.

What are the RON (low/mid/high) fuel octane specs in your country?
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91 735iL (Schwarz Black) <<~>> 85 325e (Bronzit)

http://imageshack.com/scaled/grid240/822/e38e532ndsigpic.jpg
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  #9  
Old 12-27-2009, 06:22 AM
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What are the VANOS seal issues I keep hearing about? The article at the top talks about the high oil pressure required to operate the system, hence the difficulty with the seals? How do you check if they are leaking?

I also have read in several posts that it is important to use a PH balanced coolant vs. the off the shelf American products or you risk deterioration of the plastic coolant system parts (neck). Has anyone done the 60,000 mile flushes, used the Mercedes Benz coolants and still had coolant system issues? I'm planning to do ALL the fluids on my 2002 530i, it has 59000 miles on it now which seems to be the kick in point for everything if you want to be conservative. I did this on my 1985 528td and it went 300,000 miles before the turbo blew up and on my 1994 530i (v8) and it went 150,000 miles before the fuel sender failed and I ran it out of gas and blew every engine seal #@$!
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Old 12-27-2009, 07:09 AM
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M54 Pics

Just found these cool pictures of the M54 engine, cant confirm the cutaway is our 5 series M54 or what you would find in a 3 series, but good graphic none the less. Also a few others, this is the link to the M54 page at US Auto Parts; http://www.usautoparts.net/bmw/engines/m54.htm

I did not know that the M54 won the best new engine award in 2002 over several other BMW engines:

2.5-liter to 3-liter: BMW 3-liter
For the second year running, the BMW 3-liter, gasoline-burning, in-line six cylinder narrowly beat the marque’s own 2.9-liter six cylinder turbodiesel. Impressive the brand’s category domination may be, but one should not be distracted from the gasoline engine’s triumph over the diesel. When housed in comparable 3-Series models, for example, the unit can crack the zero to 100km/h (62mph) benchmark in 6.5 seconds, while the TDi would take 1.2 seconds longer to hit the same speed. In addition, the 231bhp petrol engine can travel 100km on a mere 6.9 liters of gas (40.8mpg), a figure not too far adrift from the 2.9-liter’s potential 6.7L/100km (42.2mpg). And while the diesel is unquestionably impeccably refined, few drivers will disagree with a statement that declares that the gasoline 3-liter is far quieter and more willing to rev. Controlled by a Bosch-supplied electronic engine management system and featuring VANOS variable valve timing, the 3-liter is so flexible that it works in a saloon/coupé (3-Series); a luxury saloon (5-Series); an off-roader (X5); and a two-seater roadster (Z3).
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  #11  
Old 12-27-2009, 08:05 AM
poolman poolman is offline
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I don't understand what just going on with the idea of injecting exhaust gasses into the intake at start up.
I understand the secondary air system that injects air at start up into the cylinder head,, but I didn't know there was a spot on our intakes that allowed hot exhaust gases to be injected back into our plastic intake manifolds.
On the vanos inquiry --check the link below
http://www.beisansystems.com/procedu..._procedure.htm
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Old 12-27-2009, 10:23 AM
BlueSkies10 BlueSkies10 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by kingdunke View Post
i think the v8 model holds 1 more quart the the straight-6. but anyway, the amount of oil difference doesn't mean much to the output of the engines.

OP's article is way more for marketing than real meanings. bottomline is probably "M54 is exceptional, but the car in a whole needs lots of maintenance"
I have a V8 5.7 liter engine in my American made car and it only requires 5 quarts of oil to fill it during oil changes. My BMW 528i with the straight-6 requires 7 quarts to fill during oil changes. To me anyways more oil means more oil lubrication and good oil flow and circulation.
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  #13  
Old 12-27-2009, 02:05 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by QSilver7 View Post
I'm pretty sure that article was written for the North American market where the fuel grade uses AKI (anti-knock index) scale rather than RON (research octane number).

The AKI fuel octane specification (low/mid/high) usually found at gas stations here in the States are 87 AKI/89 AKI/91-93 AKI...these numbers are usually lower than countries that use RON.

What are the RON (low/mid/high) fuel octane specs in your country?
we have 91, 95 & 98
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  #14  
Old 12-27-2009, 02:31 PM
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Great information. I appreciate it. The vanos discussion is particularly interesting.Where is the info from?
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Old 12-27-2009, 02:47 PM
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poolman, good VANOS link... I'm hopeful I dont have to worry about it, do you really think every M54 with over 60,000 miles has at least a partial VANOS leak?
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Old 12-27-2009, 04:37 PM
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Each and evryon one of the M52 and M54 engines need these new seals. If you read the material that I linked you too, it said the OEM seals will wear out in as little as 10k miles. I was one of the first to make the change to these new seals and that was at Christmas 2 years ago. I and others have tried out best to let others know
that all the cars out on the road today with the OEM seals need to do this mod. This procedure brings the engine timing back into the spec's for which it was designed. Don't miss out on what your car's engine was designed for--this will really help it feel like another vehicle afterwards.
The seals come from Besian industries and only the Besian seals will do. If you try to have the fix made from BMW, you are only replacing bad seals with new bad seals, don't get trapped again.

Check theVanos Forum below

http://bimmerboard.com/forums/vanos/

Last edited by poolman; 12-27-2009 at 04:42 PM.
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Old 12-28-2009, 06:21 AM
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Thanks. From the sounds of it, EVERY one of us should do it, does anybody know if those used car warranties will cover the repair, really BMW should be covering it.
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Old 12-28-2009, 06:34 AM
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Good link on the VANOS, this I thought was worth posting here, good summary of issues with the M54...

"Subject: Re: Feedback on VANOS Seals Rwplacement
Author: rajaieq as Rajaie (moderator) : 503 posts
Posted on: 2009-12-03 21:56:48

Here is a list of common engine problems.

The idle control valve air intake boot branch gets cracks in the outer elbow accordion valleys. This can be inspected with a flashlight and mirror.

The idle control valve gets gummed up and sticks. Take it out and clean it with brake cleaner and towels.

The DISA valve is problematic on 01+ cars.
The DISA is a black box 4" high 6" wide on the side of the intake manifold adjacent to the MAF. Remove it. The flap should rotate with resistance and spring back when released. It shouldn't have any play. It breaks at its base axis. If it’s broken, the flap end axis pin can be removed and the flap will fall off.
The 01+ DISA has a base gasket built into the DISA. It shrinks over time and creates a small vacuum leak. Place an 8" piece of electrical tape on a table top. Cut the tape half width with a razor knife. Place one layer of half width electrical tape over the base gasket. This will thicken the gasket and create a tight seal with the intake manifold.

The crankcase vent valve and 4 associate hoses fail and cause a vacuum leak. The valve gets stuck open and the hoses crack. These last 70-120k miles and usually fail 80-90k miles. Here are a couple diagnoses.
At warm idle, place small plastic freezer storage bag on its side over the oil fill hole. If the bag sits on top or gets slightly sucked in, ~1”, the valve is good. If the bag gets significantly sucked in the hole the valve is stuck open and bad.
With the engine off and cold, carefully remove the hose at the valve cover front corner. Blow hard into the hole. You should hear oil bubbling in the oil pan. If you don’t hear the bubbling the top or bottom hose is likely cracked. The bottom hose often breaks just below the valve connection. There can also be cracks in the other two hoses.

The MAF sensor can be dirty and not perform well or can be failing. After market oiled air filters foul the MAF.
Take out the MAF and clean it with CRC MAF spray cleaner. Spray the MAF lightly. There are delicate wires that can be damaged. Let the MAF fully dry before reconnecting.
Cold air intake setups can drive the MAF beyond its intended operating limits and cause it to fail.
The MAF can be tested by disconnecting its electrical cable connector. If the performance problem resolves it might be the MAF. But this test can be deceiving and should be used with great care. When the MAF is disconnected the DME will err on enriching the air/fuel mix. This can easily cover up another performance problem like a vacuum leak. If the problem is unchanged after disconnecting the MAF the problem is not the MAF.
Aftermarket MAF sensors don’t work.

The fuel filter gets clogged and inhibits the flow of fuel. Replace it every 60-100k miles.

Sparkplugs should be replaced every 60k miles.

Replace air filter every 15k miles.

Pre-cat O2 sensors have a lifespan of 100k miles. They have a significant effect on fuel consumption. They also affect performance. When they start degrading they cause a rich air/fuel mix. This will degrade performance some but will not cause any rough running symptoms. The main symptom is degraded fuel consumption.
The pre-cat O2 sensors are not used on cold weather cold start. The O2 sensors don’t function when cold and are thus not utilized by the DME.
Aftermarket O2 sensors don’t work.

Camshaft position sensors can fail and cause problems. They will usually produce a code, but they might initially malfunction without producing a code. A failing exhaust CPS will cause light performance problems. A failing intake CPS can cause significant performance problems.
Aftermarket CPS sensors don’t work. OEM CPS sensors are only available through BMW. OEM CPS sensors have a BMW logo and this can be used to check if a CPS sensor is OEM.

Rajaie
528i 5sp 06/00"
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  #19  
Old 12-28-2009, 07:34 AM
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Great info right there from Rajaie. 98 Octane LOL!
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Old 12-28-2009, 08:06 AM
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BMW will not repair the Vanos problem because they do not recognize that there is a problem. Go back and read what Rajaie has written concerning the problem and the fix. Now since your also posting that BMW should be the one's to make the fix for this, would you want them too? Would you?
After reading that they aren't interested in the findings and the fix Rajaie has made, they would if repairing your part replace the unit with a new one with seals that are of the original make up. Their fix would be 1 grand for the new Vanos with bad seals plus labor. You might get away with 1500 charge and the same problem within 10k miles. If you can turn wrenches and read you can do this project in a day for around 120 bucks, using your own labor. Don't want to come off the heavy here,,but there has been so much said on this subject over the last two years that it's more common to most already.
The best mod you can do for your 530 is to replace your seals with the Besian product--best way to leave it.

Last edited by poolman; 12-28-2009 at 10:00 AM.
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  #21  
Old 12-28-2009, 12:10 PM
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Hooray! Hooray! is offline
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Location: Maine
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Posts: 896
Mein Auto: 2002 530i Sport Premium
Thanks poolman, you are correct, I'm just learning all the ins and outs of the M54 and there seems to be some pretty strong feelings both ways on the VANOS "issue". Some say it is a 100% VANOS seal issue and others a vacuum leak / tune up issue that happens to be addressed when people replace the VANOS seals. For me, I'm leaning to the Besian seals in a DIY situation this spring. Assumes, the 530i runs ok at idle in the cold weather here in New England. I'm working on a list of all the fluids, various recommendations, sources (below) as there appear to be many opinions on that too. I just read a pretty interesting summary from one of the BMW magazines how the "lifelong" everything started when BMW decided to include "full service" for the terms of their leases. When we were picking up the tab, everything had a 30k/60k/90k cycle, when BMW was picking up the tab, it is/was lifelong which now I'm told has been defined as 100,000 miles (or the end of the BMW warranty)! Go figure.

Here is my fluid / maintenance list start for a 2002 530i Auto Sport, going to fill in exact cost by source so if anyone knows of a less expensive source, we'll add it to a final list. The list is also subject to additions, like a few from Rajaie's post earlier:

7,500 Engine Oil: Red Line 5W-30 (redlineoil.com)
12 Mo Brake Oil: BMW (BMW)
60,000 Auto Transmission Oil: BMW ATF (BMW or Bavarian Auto)
30,000 Rear Differential Oil: Red Line 75W-90
60,000 Radiator Coolant: BMW (Barvarian Auto)
30,000 Power Steering Oil: Dexron ATF
60,000 Spark Plugs: Bosch BMW OEM (BMW)
60,000 Charcoal Cabin Air Filter (Bavarian Auto)
30,000 Engine Air Filter (Barvarian Auto)
150,000 Oxygen Sensors: (Barvarian Auto)
60,000 Fuel Filter (Bavarian Auto)
60,000 Drive Belt: BMW (BMW)
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  #22  
Old 12-28-2009, 03:51 PM
poolman poolman is offline
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Location: martinsville va
 
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Mein Auto: 525i station wagon
For parts and fluids--check with Jared over at EAC Tuning
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  #23  
Old 12-28-2009, 03:54 PM
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gtxragtop gtxragtop is offline
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Location: Mass
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Posts: 877
Mein Auto: 2003 530IA
Quote:
Originally Posted by poolman View Post
I don't understand what just going on with the idea of injecting exhaust gasses into the intake at start up.
I understand the secondary air system that injects air at start up into the cylinder head,, but I didn't know there was a spot on our intakes that allowed hot exhaust gases to be injected back into our plastic intake manifolds.
On the vanos inquiry --check the link below
http://www.beisansystems.com/procedu..._procedure.htm
There is no spot on the intakes for exhaust gases to be injected. double VANOS allows for exhaust/intake valve overlap which creates an internal exhaust gas recirculation.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation brings these benefits::
EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. In a gasoline engine, this inert exhaust displaces the amount of combustible matter in the cylinder. This means the heat of combustion is less, and the combustion generates the same pressure against the piston at a lower temperature. In a diesel engine, the exhaust gas replaces some of the excess oxygen in the pre-combustion mixture.

VANOS:
While the engine is warming up, VANOS improves the fuel/air mixture and helps to quickly warm up the catalytic converter to its normal operating temperature. When the engine is idling, the system keeps idle speeds smooth and consistent thanks to the reduction of exhaust gas re-circulation to a minimum. Under part load, exhaust gas re-circulation is increased to a much higher level, allowing the engine to run on a wider opening angle of the throttle butterfly in the interest of greater fuel economy. Under full load, the system switches back to a low re-circulation volume providing the cylinders with as much oxygen as possible.

Because NOx formation progresses much faster at high temperatures, EGR reduces the amount of NOx the combustion generates. NOx forms primarily when a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen is subjected to high temperature.
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  #24  
Old 12-28-2009, 04:45 PM
Hooray!'s Avatar
Hooray! Hooray! is offline
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Location: Maine
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Posts: 896
Mein Auto: 2002 530i Sport Premium
Quote:
Originally Posted by poolman View Post
For parts and fluids--check with Jared over at EAC Tuning
Do you have a link or contact information for Jared / EAC? Thanks.
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  #25  
Old 08-05-2013, 12:20 AM
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bluebee bluebee is offline
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Location: San Jose, California
 
Join Date: Mar 2008
Posts: 21,070
Mein Auto: 02 BMW 525i M54 auto 130K
I just ran into this thread for the first time, and will make a link in the bestlinks because this one has a lot of detail.

See also this pictorial thread, which attempts to snap a picture of every part on the M54, in situ if possible:
- Getting to know your M54 engine, a photo & identification guide to every visible part in the engine bay (1)
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Each repair should invariably add to our knowledge base by the process of inexorable incrementalism.
Your job, in return, is to read the suggested threads, where the best people will always add value to those threads, either by pictures or by descriptions, so the next person with the same problem stands on your shoulders.
See also: E39 Bestlinks & How to easily find what you need
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